Nigeria: Requirements and procedures for the issuance of affidavits; variations of Oaths Acts among states; availability of fraudulent affidavits (2019–October 2021)
The section of Nigeria's federal Evidence Act, 2011 that deals with affidavits (Articles 107–120) provides the following:
108. Before an affidavit is used in the court for any purpose, the original shall be filed in the court, and the original or an office copy shall alone be recognised for any purpose in the court.
109. Any affidavit sworn before any judge, officer or other person duly authorised to take affidavits in Nigeria may be used in the court in all cases where affidavits are admissible.
110. Any affidavit sworn in any country other than Nigeria before—
- a judge or magistrate, being authenticated by the official seal of the court to which he is attached, or by a notary public; or
- the duly authorised officer in the Nigerian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate in that country, may be used in the court in all cases where affidavits are admissible.
111. The fact that an affidavit purports to have been sworn in the manner prescribed in the preceding sections shall be prima facie evidence of—
- the seal or signature, as the case may be, of any such court, judge, magistrate or other officer or person mentioned in, or appended or subscribed to, any such affidavit; and
- the authority of such court, judge, magistrate or other officer or person to administer oaths.
112. An affidavit shall not be admitted which is proved to have been sworn before a person on whose behalf the same is offered or before his legal practitioner, or before a partner or clerk of his legal practitioner.
113. The court may permit an affidavit to be used, notwithstanding that it is defective in form according to this Act, if the court is satisfied that it has been sworn before a person duly authorised.
114. A defective or erroneous affidavit may be amended and re-sworn by leave of the court, on such terms as to time, costs or otherwise as seem reasonable.
- Every affidavit used in the court shall contain only a statement of facts and circumstances to which the witness deposes, either of his own personal knowledge or from information which he believes to be true.
- An affidavit shall not contain extraneous matter, by way of objection, prayer or legal argument or conclusion.
- When a person deposes to his belief in any matter of fact, and his belief is derived from any source other than his own personal knowledge, he shall set forth explicitly the facts and circumstances forming the ground of his belief.
- When such belief is derived from information received from another person, the name of his informant shall be stated, and reasonable particulars shall be given respecting the informant, and the time, place and circumstance of the information.
116. When there are before a court affidavits that are irreconcilably in conflict on crucial facts, the court shall for the purpose of resolving the conflict arising from the affidavit evidence, ask the parties to proffer oral evidence as to such facts, and shall hear any such oral evidence of the deponents of the affidavits and such other witnesses as may be called by the parties.
- The person before whom an affidavit may be taken may take without oath the declaration or any person who—
- affirms that the taking of any oath whatsoever is, according to his religious belief, unlawful; or
- by reason of immature age or want of religious belief, ought not, in the opinion of the person taking the declaration to be admitted to make a sworn affidavit.
- The person taking the declaration shall record in the attestation the reason of such declaration being taken without oath. (Nigeria 2011, bold in original)
In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a law firm based in Toronto with a presence in Nigeria whose practice areas include immigration, business, litigation and workplace investigations, stated that the Oaths Act of 1963 ("as amended") is a "Statute of General Application"; it is therefore "binding" for all states in Nigeria except for Lagos, which has enacted the Oaths Law of Lagos State (as amended) (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a partner at a Lagos-based law firm, whose practice areas include litigation and dispute resolution, taxation, and corporate finance, stated that the Oaths Act "applies across the country" (Partner A 18 Oct. 2021). However, in correspondence with the Research Directorate, a partner at a different Lagos-based law firm, whose practice areas include employment and immigration law, noted that "each state has its own oath law"; these differ in style but "the contents are largely the same" (Partner B 20 Oct. 2021). Similarly, in correspondence with the Research Directorate, the founder and Principal Counsel of an Ontario-based law firm, who also founded a business management software, and a member of the Ontario bar indicated in a joint response that states have separate oath laws but that these "mostly replicate the federal legislation" (Founder and member 26 Oct. 2021). One of the law firm partners stated that courts will allow individuals to refer to the oath law when swearing an oath, since it contains "essentially the same content" as the Oaths Act (Partner A 18 Oct. 2021). Nigeria's federal Oaths Act provides the following:
6. Place and date of oath
Every commissioner for oaths or notary public before whom any oath or affidavit is taken or made under this Act shall state truly in the jurat or attestation at which place and on what date the oath or affidavit is taken or made.
Any person who objects to the taking of an oath and desires to make an affirmation in lieu thereof, may do so without being questioned as to the grounds of such objection or desire, or otherwise, and in any such case the form of the required oath shall be varied by the substitution for the words or [sic] swearing, the words, "I solemnly, sincerely, and truthfully affirm that .... "; and such other consequential variations of form as may be necessary shall thereupon be made:
Provided that in any case where the Oath of Allegiance is to be taken, for the words "truthfully affirm" in this section there shall be substituted the words "truly declare and affirm," and the words "So help me God," shall be omitted.
13. Voluntary declarations
It shall be lawful for any commissioner for oaths, notary public or any other person authorised by this Act to administer an oath, to take and receive the declaration of any person voluntarily making the same before him in the form set out in the First Schedule to this Act. (Nigeria 1963, bold and second ellipsis in original)
The Oaths Act further provides the following oath for affidavits:
I ......................................................................................................do hereby solemnly swear by Almighty God that this is my name and handwriting and that the facts deposed by me in this affidavit are the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. (Nigeria 1963)
The Oaths Act also provides forms of oath and jurat for the following circumstances:
- If the deponent is blind or illiterate
- If the deponent is "physically in-capacitated from writing his name"
- If the deponent is "incapable of affixing any distinguishable mark" to the affidavit
- If the deponent requires an interpreter (Nigeria 1963, First Schedule).
According to an article by Adebiyi Tax & Legal , in the case of GTB Plc v. Abiodun (2017) LPELR-42551 (CA), the Court of Appeal "held that a statement on oath or affidavit must comply strictly with Section 13 of the Oaths Act, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 2004 for it to be valid" (Adebiyi Tax & Legal 14 Nov. 2018). The same source further noted that if this decision is referenced by other courts, it "will have a far[-]reaching effect on the validity of numerous cases concluded before various courts in Nigeria because the requirement of Section 13 of the Oaths Act has not been strictly followed in many of cases" (Adebiyi Tax & Legal 14 Nov. 2018). Referencing the same legal case, the founder and member noted that the Oaths Act "requires strict compliance with the prescribed format of oath, otherwise the affidavit is not legally effective" (Founder and member 26 Oct. 2021).
2. Types of Affidavits
According to sources, there are affidavits for court proceedings and for non-court proceedings (Partner A 18 Oct. 2021; Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). One of the law firm partners stated that there is "just one standard affidavit" but that affidavits "are subject matter specific" (Partner B 20 Oct. 2021). The Toronto-based law firm noted that affidavits are captioned "based on what the affidavit sets out to achieve" and provided the following list of common affidavit types:
- Change of name ("used to declare a change of name by the deponent")
- Statement/declaration of age ("usually used in lieu of a birth certificate")
- Affidavit of behaviour ("usually intended to attest to good behaviour")
- Affidavits "stat[ing] facts in support of a case in court," including sworn witness statements, verifying affidavits or supporting affidavits
- Affidavits that "testify to the loss of documents or other valuables"
- Affidavits of fact (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021).
3. Authorities Who Can Issue and Swear Affidavits
Nigeria's federal Oaths Act provides the following:
10. Authority to administer oaths
- It shall be lawful for the Chief Justice of Nigeria, a Justice of the Supreme Court, the President and Justices of the Court of Appeal and any judge of the Federal High Court, a notary public, and any commissioner for oaths, to administer any lawful oath or to take any lawful affirmation or affidavit which may be required to be taken or made for the purpose of complying with the requirements of any law for the time being in force throughout Nigeria or elsewhere, except where such procedure is expressly or by necessary implication manifestly excluded by the terms of such law as aforesaid and the presumption shall be against any such exclusion. (Nigeria 1963)
In 2016, the Oaths (Amendment) Act, 2016, was passed; it states that
2.Section 10 (1) of the Principal Act is amended by substituting for the words, "and any Judge of the Federal High Court", in line 2, the words, “the Chief Judge and Judges of the Federal High Court, the President and Judges of the National Industrial Court, the Chief Judge and Judges of the High Court of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, the Chief Judge and Judges of a State High Court, the Grand Kadi and Kadis of the Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, the President and Judges of the Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, the Grand Kadis and Kadis of the Sharia Court of Appeal of a State, the President and Judges of the Customary Court of Appeal of a State. (Nigeria 2016)
According to the Toronto-based law firm, the two "most common" authorities issuing affidavits are commissioners for oaths and notaries public (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). One of the law firm partners stated that for court proceedings, the individual must swear before the commissioner for oaths or, if they are outside Nigeria, before a notary public; for non-court proceedings, the affidavit can be issued by "authorized" individuals based at the courts or a notary public (Partner A 18 Oct. 2021). An article by Premium Times, a Nigeria-based online newspaper, cites the National Officer for the Nigerian Bar Association as stating that affidavits which are not sworn before a "designated court official" or commissioner for oaths are "not authentic" (Premium Times 1 June 2021). The Toronto-based law firm explained that notaries public are not "public officers" and are outside the court system, meaning that affidavits sworn before notaries are confidential and "in some cases could be covered by solicitor-client privilege" (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). Section 10(1) of the Oaths Law of Lagos State provides that the authorities able to administer an oath or affidavits are as follows:
- the Chief Judge of Lagos State
- a judge of the High Court
- a magistrate
- a notary public
- any commissioner for oaths in Lagos State (Lagos 1967).
3.1 Authorities Who Can Issue and Swear Affidavits Abroad
The Oaths Act provides the following regarding authorities able swear and issue affidavits abroad:
11. Taking oaths out of Nigeria
- Any oath or affidavit required for any court or for the purposes of registration of an instrument may be taken or made in any place out of Nigeria before any person having authority to administer an oath in that place.
- The provisions of subsection (1) of this section shall apply to any declaration, or affirmation in lieu of oath or affidavit so taken or made.
- In the case of a person having such authority by the law of a country other than Nigeria, judicial and official notice shall be taken of his seal or signature affixed, impressed or subscribed to or on any such oath, affidavit, declaration or affirmation.
12. Power of Nigerian officials abroad
- Every Nigerian official of the rank of secretary or above in a Nigerian Embassy or legation may in any country where he exercises his functions, administer any oath and take any affidavit and also do any notarial act which a notary public can do within Nigeria.
- Any oath, affidavit and notarial act administered, sworn or done by or, before any such person shall be as effectual as if duly administered, sworn or done by or before any lawful authority in any part of Nigeria.
- Any document purporting to have affixed, impressed or subscribed thereon or thereto the seal or signature of any person authorised by this section to administer an oath in testimony of any oath, affidavit or act being administered, taken or done by or before him shall be admitted in evidence without proof of the seal or signature of that person, or of the official character of that person. (Nigeria 1963)
The Toronto-based law firm noted that the Oaths Law of Lagos State does not cover requirements for taking an oath outside of Nigeria (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021).
4. Procedures to Obtain an Affidavit
According to one of the law firm partners, the procedures to obtain an affidavit are to "prepare the affidavit, attach a passport photograph and swear an oath before the commissioner of oaths or a notary public" (Partner B 20 Oct. 2021). A June 2021 article in the Punch, a daily Nigerian newspaper, states that an individual seeking an affidavit must first pay the "'statutory fees'"; the proof of payment is then verified by the finance department, after which the commissioner for oaths will authorize and sign the affidavit (The Punch 3 June 2021). The Toronto-based law firm summarizes the procedures to obtain an affidavit, provided in Sections 108, 115, and 117–119 of the Evidence Act, 2011, as follows:
- The deponent, or the person interested in obtaining an affidavit, is expected to appear before the person having authority to administer an affidavit. … [T]he most common [of these authorities] are the various commissioners for oaths and notar[ies] public.
- The party must pay the prescribed fee and receive a receipt for the transaction.
- The identi[ty] of the deponent must be verified by the notary public, commissioner of oaths or [an]other individual having authority to administer an affidavit. This is done by examining the national ID card, passport, or other information like the deponent's personal details, such as religion, state of origin, parent's maiden name, address, reason for affidavit, etc.
- Further questions may be asked of the deponent and further evidence could also be required.
- Afterwards, the deponent will then swear to the facts and sign the affidavit.
- The administering authority is expected to sign and seal the affidavit. (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021)
5. Examples of State-Specific Procedures to Obtain a Court-Issued Affidavit
Information on state-specific procedures to obtain a court-issued affidavit was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. Sources indicated that the procedures to obtain an affidavit are "largely the same" in all states (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021; Partner A 18 Oct. 2021), including Lagos (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). Similarly, the founder and the member reported that, because state oaths laws "closely replicate" the federal Oaths Act, there is "substantial uniformity" in the country's oath laws, though titles and format requirements may differ (Founder and member 26 Oct. 2021). One of the law firm partners noted that "[s]ome states may not require the deponent to be physically present" (Partner B 20 Oct. 2021).
6. Provision of Identity Documents and Passport Photographs in the Issuance of Affidavits
Information on the provision of identity documents and passport photographs in the issuance of affidavits was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
In follow-up correspondence with the Research Directorate, one of the law firm partners stated that the practice of including a passport photograph with the affidavit is "strictly" followed in the high courts of Nigeria and Lagos State and "usually" followed by commissioners for oaths; "some" notaries also adhere to this practice (Partner A 20 Oct. 2021). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a notary public at a law firm based in Abuja stated that the inclusion of a passport photo with an affidavit is "convention" rather than a legal requirement; in some states, photos will be attached, but not in all (Notary Public 1 Nov. 2021). The same source adds, however, that the Supreme Court does not accept affidavits if there is no photo attached (Notary Public 1 Nov. 2021).
7. Affidavit Fees and Issuance of Receipts
According to the founder and the member, if an affidavit is authenticated by the Commissioner for Oaths for members of the public, deponents "usually" receive receipts for the fees paid (Founder and member 26 Oct. 2021). In follow-up correspondence, one of the law firm partners stated that there is no "fixed" fee for affidavits from a court and the cost will vary between courts and across the country (Partner A 20 Oct. 2021). Sources indicated that fees for affidavits from notaries public differ (Partner A 20 Oct. 2021; Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021) "according to the fee range of the Notary Public in question" (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). The Toronto-based law firm added that "most" court affidavits cost between 1,000 and 2,000 Nigerian naira (NGN) [C$3.00–6.00], depending on the type of affidavit (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). The Notary Public noted that in "most" states an affidavit is 500 NGN; in Abuja the average cost for a high court-issued affidavit is 1,000 to 2,000 NGN, while at the Supreme Court the cost is 15 NGN (Notary Public 1 Nov. 2021). The same source further stated that notary publics do not have rates set by the government and indicated that their law firm charges "about" 20,000 NGA for an affidavit (Notary Public 1 Nov. 2021). The Notary Public explained that courts "can be cheaper," since they are only available weekdays from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. while notaries public are available on weekends and holidays and willing to meet a client "in public" (Notary Public 1 Nov. 2021). According to an article in Premium Times, each court decides its own fees for affidavit types, providing the following examples for 2019 fees:
- Supreme Court charges 10 NGN for declaration-of-age affidavit
- Supreme Court charges 300 NGN for affidavits needed for court proceedings
- Lagos State judiciary charges a "fixed fee" of 500 NGN for court-issued affidavits
- Court of Appeal charges 300 NGN for affidavits with an additional 157 NGN in "bank charges"
- Federal Capital Territory charges 500 NGN for an affidavit and 200 NGN for the additional requirement of court's seal to be affixed to the document (Premium Times 1 June 2021).
8. Appearance and Verification of Affidavits
The Evidence Act, 2011 provides the following:
- Every affidavit taken in a cause or matter shall—
- be headed in the court and in the cause or matter;
- state the full name, trade or profession, residence, and nationality of the deponent; and
- be in the first person, and divided into convenient paragraphs numbered consecutively.
- Any erasure, interlineation or alteration made before the affidavit is sworn, shall be attested by the person before whom it is taken, who shall affix his signature or initial in the margin immediately opposite to the interlineations, alteration or erasure.
- Where an affidavit proposed to be sworn is illegible or difficult to read, or is in the judgment of the person before whom it is taken so written as to facilitate fraudulent alteration, he may refuse to swear the deponent, and require the affidavit to be re-written in an unobjectionable manner.
- An affidavit when sworn shall be signed by the deponent or if he cannot write or is blind, marked by him personally with his mark in the presence of the person before whom it is taken.
118. The person before whom an affidavit is taken shall not allow it, when sworn, to be altered in any manner without being re-sworn; and may refuse to allow an altered affidavit to be re-sworn and require instead a fresh affidavit.
- Where the deponent is illiterate or blind the affidavit shall state that fact, and shall be accompanied with a jurat. (Nigeria 2011, bold in original)
According to the Toronto-based law firm there are "common features" on affidavits which include
the signature of the deponent, [the] signature of the Commissioner of Oaths or the Notary Public that swore and issued the affidavit, the seal or stamp of the court or Notary Public. … The Lagos State judiciary has a seal which is now affixed to affidavits sworn before the Lagos State judiciary. Affidavits sworn before a notary public are expected to have a stamp and seal of the Nigerian Bar Association (NBA) on them. If a document that is intended for use in a judicial process in court in Nigeria does not have a stamp and seal, the Supreme Court of Nigeria in Senator Bello Sarkin Yaki v. Senator Atiku Bubakar Bagudu (SC/722/2015) has taken the position that the implication is that the document has not been properly signed or filed. (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021)
A sample of a non-court proceedings affidavit, provided by one of the law firm partners (Partner A), is attached to this Response (Attachment 1). A sample of a signature for a court affidavit, provided by the same law firm partner, is attached to this Response (Attachment 2).
The Toronto-based law firm stated that affidavits in Nigeria do not have verification features (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). The Notary Public stated that government-issued affidavits have "little or no identifiable mark for authenticity" (Notary Public 1 Nov. 2021). However, according to one of the law firm partners, affidavits have the seal of the issuing court or notary public for verification purposes (Partner B 20 Oct. 2021). Similarly, the founder and member noted that "the affidavit is authenticated with the signature and/or official stamp or seal of the Commissioner for Oaths or notary public" (Founder and member 26 Oct. 2021). One of the law firm partners stated the following regarding verification features:
- If the affidavit was issued by a notary public or court, there will be a stamp.
- Affidavits issued at the courts will include the name of the Commissioner for Oaths and a signature. Federal courts have "national jurisdiction" so their affidavits will be signed by the adjudicator.
- Affidavits issued outside the courts will have the name and stamp of the issuing lawyer (Partner A 18 Oct. 2021).
9. Availability of Fraudulent and Irregularly Issued Affidavits in Nigeria
Sources indicated that false affidavits exist in Nigeria (Partner A 18 Oct. 2021; Partner B 20 Oct. 2020; Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). However, the founder and the member noted that Nigeria's criminal justice system "severely punishes" forgery and fraud and that this "deter[s]" the use of fake affidavits (Founder and member 26 Oct. 2021). The Toronto-based law firm similarly stated that "anyone found to have made a false affidavit" will be charged with the crime of perjury (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). According to one of the law firm partners, while it "may be easy" for an individual to access a fraudulent affidavit, "largely people try as much as possible to comply" with legal requirements (Partner A 18 Oct. 2021). The founder and member stated that, as affidavits can be obtained with "relative ease," it is "highly unlikely" that an individual would use a fraudulent affidavit (Founder and member 26 Oct. 2021). Sources indicated that fraudulent affidavits are more expensive than authentic ones (Notary Public 1 Nov. 2021; Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021), making them "less attractive" to deponents (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). The Toronto-based law firm indicated, however, that, "in certain situations," individuals use middle agents to acquire affidavits because they believe this will facilitate the process (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). The same source further notes that "most" affidavits in Nigeria are issued by "credible sources" and that the use of fraudulent affidavits "often occurs when the Nigerian judiciary are on strike" (Toronto-based law firm 22 Oct. 2021). In June 2021, Premium Times reported the issuance of fake affidavits during the court strike that was taking place, stating that, outside various courts for the Federal Capital Territory, their reporter was able to have affidavits issued without a police report or proof of the claims, with the affidavits being stamped and backdated to when the courts were open; prices for fraudulent affidavits ranged from 1,000 to 4,000 NGN (Premium Times 1 June 2021). The Punch reported that "some" of those issuing fraudulent affidavits possess court stamps (The Punch 3 June 2021).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
 Adebiyi Tax & Legal was a tax litigation law practice in Nigeria until it was acquired by another law firm in March 2020 (Vanguard 5 Mar. 2020).
Adebiyi Tax & Legal. 14 November 2018. Maxwell Ukpebor, Samuel Esuga and Olumayowa Oluwole. "Nigeria: Statement on Oath Voided for Non-compliance with Section 13 Oaths Act." Mondaq. [Accessed 29 Oct. 2021]
Founder of an Ontario-based law firm and a member of the Ontario bar. 26 October 2021. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
Lagos State. 1967. Oaths Law of Lagos State. [Accessed 18 Oct. 2021]
Nigeria. 2016. Oaths (Amendment) Act, 2016. [Accessed 25 Oct. 2021]
Nigeria. 2011. Evidence Act, 2011. [Accessed 18 Oct. 2021]
Nigeria. 1963. Oaths Act. [Accessed 18 Oct. 2021]
Notary Public, Abuja. 1 November 2021. Telephone interview with the Research Directorate.
Partner A, Lagos-based law firm. 20 October 2021. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
Partner A, Lagos-based law firm. 18 October 2021. Telephone interview with the Research Directorate.
Partner B, Lagos-based law firm. 20 October 2021. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
Premium Times. 1 June 2021. Kunle Sanni. "Investigation: Court Officials, Touts Illegally Issue Affidavits During Judiciary Workers' Strike." [Accessed 19 Oct. 2021]
The Punch. 3 June 2021. Maritha Ebolosue. "'Nigerians Should Refrain from Falsifying Affidavits.'" [Accessed 19 Oct. 2021]
Toronto-based law firm. 22 October 2021. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
Vanguard. 5 March 2020. "TNP Acquires Adebiyi Tax & Legal." [Accessed 29 Oct. 2021]
Additional Sources Consulted
Oral sources: Access to Justice; Canadian Association of Nigerian Lawyers; Civil Resource Development and Documentation Centre; chief law librarian at a Canadian law school; Federal Capital Territory – High Court; International Society for Peace and Safety; Lagos State – Office of the Attorney-General; law firms in Nigeria (4); law professors at universities in Nigeria (2); Legal Defence and Assistance Project; Nigeria – Legal Aid Council, Nigerian Police Force, Supreme Court of Nigeria; Nigerian Bar Association; Ogun State – Ogun State Judiciary; professor of public and private law at a university in Nigeria; Rivers State – Rivers State Judiciary; senior lecturer at a Nigerian law school.
Internet sites, including: Australia – Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade; Civil Resource Development and Documentation Centre; Delta State – Delta State Government; Denmark – Danish National ID Centre; ecoi.net; Federal Capital Territory – High Court; International Encyclopaedia of Laws; Kluwer Law Online; Lagos State – Lagos State Judiciary; LawNigeria; Learn Nigerian Laws; Legit.ng; Netherlands – Ministry of Foreign Affairs; New York University School of Law – Hauser Global Law School Program; Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies; Nigeria – Legal Aid Council, National Judicial Council, Supreme Court of Nigeria; Nigerian Bar Association; Nigerian Finder; Nigerian Law Library; Policy and Legal Advocacy Centre; Rivers State – Rivers State Judiciary; UN – Human Rights Council, Refworld; US – CIA, Department of State.
- Notary Public, Nigeria. 2020. "Affidavit of Facts in Respect of Expression of Interest for the Provision of Engineering Consultancy Services." Sent to the Research Directorate by a partner (Partner A) in a Lagos-based law firm, 20 October 2021.
- Nigeria. 2013. Federal High Court. Sample of a court affidavit signature. Sent to the Research Directorate by a partner (Partner A) in a Lagos-based law firm, 20 October 2021.