Interpretation of the convention refugee definition in the case law

March 31, 2018

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction

  1. 1.1. Foreward
  2. 1.2. Explanatory Notes
  3. 1.3. Convention Refugee Definition
    1. 1.3.1. Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, S. 96 - Meaning of “Convention Refugee”
    2. 1.3.2. Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, Section 108(1) and (4)- Rejection and Cessation
    3. 1.3.3. Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, S. 98 – Exclusion Clauses
    4. 1.3.4. Schedule to the Immigration And Refugee Protection Act - Exclusion Clauses
    5. 1.3.5. What the Paper Covers
  4. 1.4. General Rules of Interpretation
    1. 1.4.1. Surrogate Protection
    2. 1.4.2. Fear of Persecution for a Convention Reason
    3. 1.4.3. Two Presumptions at Play in Refugee Determination
    4. 1.4.4. State Complicity Not Required
    5. 1.4.5. Existence of Fear of Persecution
    6. 1.4.6. Use of Underlying Anti-Discrimination Law in Interpreting Particular Social Group
    7. 1.4.7. Broad and General Interpretation of Political Opinion and Perception of Persecutor
    8. 1.4.8. Examiner to Consider the Relevant Grounds
    9. 1.4.9. Section 7 of the Charter
    10. 1.4.10. All Elements of the Definition Must be Met
    11. 1.4.11. Personal Targeting Not Required
    12. 1.4.12. Applicable Test: “Reasonable or Serious Possibility”
    13. 1.4.13. Exclusion Clauses
    14. 1.4.14. International Human Rights Instruments

Chapter 2 - Country of Persecution

  1. 2.1. Country of Nationality
    1. 2.1.1. Multiple Nationalities
    2. 2.1.2. Establishing Nationality
    3. 2.1.3. Right to Citizenship
      1. 2.1.3.1. Israel’s Law of Return
    4. 2.1.4. Effectiveness of Nationality
    5. 2.1.5. Failure to Access Possible Protection in a Third Country
  2. 2.2. Former Habitual Residence - Stateless Persons
    1. 2.2.1. Principles and Criteria for Establishing Country of Former Habitual Residence
    2. 2.2.2. Multiple Countries of Former Habitual Residence
    3. 2.2.3. Nature of Ties to the Country
    4. 2.2.4. Subsisting Well-Founded Fear of Persecution
    5. 2.2.5. Evidence of Persecution for a Convention Reason
    6. 2.2.6. State Protection

Chapter 3 - Persecution

  1. 3.1. Generally
    1. 3.1.1. Definition and General Principles
      1. 3.1.1.1. Serious Harm
      2. 3.1.1.2. Repetition and Persistence
      3. 3.1.1.3. Nexus
      4. 3.1.1.4. Common Crime or Persecution?
      5. 3.1.1.5. Agent of Persecution
    2. 3.1.2. Cumulative Acts of Discrimination and/or Harassment
    3. 3.1.3. Forms of Persecution
      1. 3.1.3.1. Some Judicial Observations

Chapter 4 - Grounds of Persecution - Nexus

  1. 4.1. Generally
  2. 4.2. Race
  3. 4.3. Nationality
  4. 4.4. Religion
  5. 4.5. Particular Social Group
  6. 4.6. Political Opinion
  7. 4.7. Victims of Criminality and Nexus to Grounds

Chapter 5 - Well-Founded Fear

  1. 5.1. Generally
  2. 5.2. Test - Standard of Proof
  3. 5.3. Subjective Fear and Objective Basis
    1. 5.3.1. Establishing the Subjective and Objective Elements
  4. 5.4. Delay
    1. 5.4.1. Delay in Leaving the Country of Persecution
    2. 5.4.2. Failure to Seek Protection in Other Countries
    3. 5.4.3. Delay in Making a Claim Upon Arrival in Canada
  5. 5.5. Re-Availment of Protection
  6. 5.6. Sur Place Claims and Well-Founded Fear

Chapter 6 - State Protection

  1. 6.1. Introduction - General Principles
    1. 6.1.1. Surrogate Protection
    2. 6.1.2. Multiple Nationalities
    3. 6.1.3. Timing of Analysis
    4. 6.1.4. Unable or Unwilling - A Blurred Distinction - No Requirement for State Complicity
    5. 6.1.5. Presumptions
    6. 6.1.6. Nexus
    7. 6.1.7. Burden and Standard of Proof and Rebutting the Presumption
      1. 6.1.7.1 Burden of Proof and Obligation to Approach the State
        1. 6.1.7.1.1. More Than One Authority in the Country
      2. 6.1.7.2 Standard of Proof
      3. 6.1.7.3  Rebutting the Presumption of Protection
        1. 6.1.7.3.1 The Evidentiary Burden of “Clear and Convincing”
        2. 6.1.7.3.2. Standard of Protection
    8. 6.1.8. Source of Protection
  2. 6.2 Stateless Claimants

Chapter 7 - Change of Circumstances, Compelling Reasons and Sur Place Claims

  1. 7.1. Change of Circumstances
    1. 7.1.1. Standard of Proof and Criteria
    2. 7.1.2. Reasons and Assessment of Evidence
    3. 7.1.3. Post-Hearing Evidence
  2. 7.2. Compelling Reasons
    1. 7.2.1. Applicability
    2. 7.2.2. Duty to Consider the “Compelling Reasons” Exception
    3. 7.2.3. Meaning of “Compelling Reasons”
    4. 7.2.4. Adequacy of Reasons for Decision
    5. 7.2.5. Level or Severity of Harm
    6. 7.2.6. Psychological After-Effects
    7. 7.2.7. Persecution of Others and Other Factors
  3. 7.3. Sur Place Claims
    1. 7.3.1. Claimant’s Activities Abroad

Chapter 8 - Internal Flight Alternative (IFA)

  1. 8.1. The Two-Prong Test and General Principles
  2. 8.2. Notice - Burden of Proof
  3. 8.3. Interpretation and Application of the Two-Pronged Test
    1. 8.3.1. Fear of Persecution
    2. 8.3.2. Reasonable in All the Circumstances

Chapter 9 - Particular Situations

  1. 9.1. Introduction
  2. 9.2. Civil War or Other Prevalent Conflict
    1. 9.2.1. Two Approaches: Comparative and Non-Comparative
      1. 9.2.1.1. Background
      2. 9.2.1.2. The Non-Comparative Approach is the Legal and Preferred Test
  3. 9.3. Prosecution, or Persecution for a Convention Reason?
    1. 9.3.1. Limits to Acceptable Legislation and Enforcement
    2. 9.3.2. Laws of General Application
    3. 9.3.3. Policing Methods, National Security and Preservation of Social Order
    4. 9.3.4. Enforcement and Serious Possibility
    5. 9.3.5. Exit Laws
    6. 9.3.6. Military Service: Conscientious Objection, Evasion, Desertion
    7. 9.3.7. One-Child Policy of China
    8. 9.3.8. Religious or Cultural Mores
      1. 9.3.8.1. Restrictions Upon Women
      2. 9.3.8.2. Ahmadis from Pakistan
  4. 9.4. Indirect Persecution and Family Unity

Chapter 10 - Exclusion Clauses - Article 1E

  1. 10.1.  Introduction
    1. 10.1.1. Test
    2. 10.1.2. Nature of the Residency Rights
    3. 10.1.3. Onus to Renew Status
    4. 10.1.4. Rights and Obligations of a National
    5. 10.1.5. Fear of Persecution and State Protection in the Article 1E Country

Chapter 11 - Article 1F

  1. 11.1.  Introduction
    1. 11.1.1. Standard of Proof - Serious Reasons to Consider
    2. 11.1.2. Balancing and Complicity Generally
  2. 11.2.  Article 1F(a): Crimes Against Peace, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity
    1. 11.2.1. Crimes Against Peace
    2. 11.2.2. War Crimes
    3. 11.2.3. Crimes Against Humanity
    4. 11.2.4. Defences
      1. 11.2.4.1. Duress
      2. 11.2.4.2. Superior Orders
      3. 11.2.4.3. Military Necessity
      4. 11.2.4.4. Remorse
    5. 11.2.5. Complicity
      1. 11.2.5.1. The Test for Complicity
      2. 11.2.5.2. Applying the Test
    6. 11.2.6. Responsibility of Superiors
  3. 11.3.  Article 1 F(b):  Serious Non-Political Crimes
    1. 11.3.1. Generally
    2. 11.3.2. No Requirement for “Equivalency”
    3. 11.3.3. Determination of Whether a Crime is Serious
    4. 11.3.4. Determination of Whether a Crime is Political
    5. 11.3.5. Prior to Admission
    6. 11.3.6. “Serious Reasons for Considering”
  4. 11.4.  Article 1F(c):  Acts Contrary to the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations
  5. 11.5.  Burden of Proof and Notice
  6. 11.6.  Consideration of Inclusion Where Claimant is Excluded

Keypoints