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25 May 2018

IND106101.E

India: Socio-economic profile of Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Mumbai, including population, demographics and economy; tenant registration requirements (2016-April 2018)

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa

1. Bengaluru

The city of Bengaluru is located in the state of Karnataka (India [2011]a), of which it is the capital (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017; India Today 2011, 75). According to sources, Bengaluru was formerly known as Bangalore (BBC 31 Oct. 2014; The Times of India 1 Nov. 2014). According to provisional reports from India's census, the population of Bengaluru was 8,443,675 as of 2011 (India [2011]a). Other sources report that Bengaluru has a population of 10.5 million people (World Economic Forum 5 Oct. 2016) or 10.6 million people (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017) or 11.5 million people (PRI 6 May 2016).

According to the book India Today. An Encyclopedia of Life in The Republic, Bengaluru is a "demographically diverse city" (India Today 2011, 75). Information on the ethnic composition of Bengaluru could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to provisional reports from India's 2011 Census, 78.87 percent of Bengaluru's population follows Hinduism, while 13.9 percent follows Islam, 5.61 percent follows Christianism, 0.97 percent follows Jainism, 0.15 percent follows Sikhism, 0.15 percent follows Buddhism, 0.01 percent follows another unspecified religion, and 0.44 percent follows no particular religion (India [2011]a). Sources indicate that the languages spoken in Bengaluru include the following: Kannada (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017; BBC 31 Oct. 2014; India Today 2011, 75), Hindi, English, Telugu (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017; India Today 2011, 75), Urdu, Tamil (India Today 2011, 75), Konkani and Malayalam (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017).

India Today states that Bengaluru is "the fastest growing major metropolis in India" and that it is a "major economic and cultural hub" (India Today 2011, 75). Other sources indicate that Bengaluru is referred to as "India's Silicon Valley" (BBC 21 Oct. 2014; PRI 6 May 2016; World Economic Forum 5 Oct. 2016). Information on employment rates in Bengaluru could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Sources report that there are landlords in Bengaluru who require potential tenants to show their Aadhaar card (Bangalore Mirror 11 May 2017; Asianet News Online 10 May 2017) in order to "process rental agreements" (Bangalore Mirror 11 May 2017). For further information about the Aadhaar card, see Response to Information Request IND106095 of May 2018.

2. Chennai

The city of Chennai is the capital of the Tamil Nadu state (India [2011]b; India Today 2011, 679). According to the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Chennai is "India's fourth largest city, by economy and population" (India n.d.a). According to provisional reports from India's census, the population of Chennai was 4,646,732 as of 2011 (India [2011]b). Other sources indicate that Chennai has a population of 7 million people (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017) or 10.2 million people (World Economic Forum 5 Oct. 2016).

According to provisional reports of India's 2011 Census, 80.73 percent of Chennai's population follows Hinduism, while 9.45 percent follows Islam, 7.72 percent follows Christianism, 1.11 percent follows Jainism, 0.06 percent follows Sikhism, 0.06 percent follows Buddhism and 0.04 percent follows another unspecified religion (India [2011]b).

According to India Today, Chennai is the "center of a vibrant cultural life based around Tamil culture and language" (India Today 2011, 680). Sources indicate that Chennai is a demographically diverse city (Yatra n.d.a; The Hindu 19 Dec. 2011), that is "home to over 30 different communities" (The Hindu 19 Dec. 2011). Information on the ethnic composition of Chennai could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. Sources indicate that while the official language of Chennai is Tamil (Yatra n.d.b; India Today 2011, 679), the following languages are also spoken in Chennai: English (Yatra n.d.b; India Today 2011, 679); Telugu and Malayalam (Yatra n.d.b).

According to the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Chennai has a "diverse array of economic sectors and is known for its automobile industry" and information technology sector (India n.d.a). Information on employment rates in Chennai could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. Information on tenant registration requirements could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

3. Delhi

Sources indicate that New Delhi is one of several districts that are part of the city of Delhi (The Diplomat 29 Sept. 2016; India Today 2011, 502). According to The Diplomat, an international affairs magazine for the Asia-Pacific region,

[t]he entire city of Delhi ... is a Union Territory under the Indian constitution, officially known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. This region is jointly administered by a local government and the central government of India. Central government buildings are concentrated in New Delhi and the central government … of India has paramount jurisdiction over these buildings - thus over most of New Delhi. (The Diplomat 29 Sept. 2016)

According to provisional reports from India's census, the population of Delhi was 11,034,555 as of 2011 (India [2011]c). According to other sources, the population of New Delhi is more than 18 million people (India Today 2011, 502; CNN 10 Nov. 2017). Information on the ethnic composition of Delhi could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to provisional reports of India's 2011 Census, 80.21 percent of Delhi's population follows Hinduism, while 12.78 percent follows Islam, 0.96 percent follows Christianism, 1.39 percent follows Jainism, 4.43 percent follows Sikhism, 0.12 percent follows Buddhism, 0.02 percent follows another unspecified religion, and 0.08 percent follows no particular religion (India [2011]c).

According to India Today, "[n]umerous languages are spoken in Delhi, although the predominant languages are Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, and English" (India Today 2011, 502).

Information on employment rates in Delhi could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

3.1 Tenant Registration in Delhi

In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a PhD research scholar at the Centre for Study of Social Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi stated that

[t]enant registration is currently compulsory in Delhi and every tenant needs to be verified [by] the police. … [T]he tenant needs to sign an agreement on a notarized certificate with the landlord in the presence of two witnesses. After police verification, they are allowed to lease and move into the premises. (Research scholar 2 May 2018)

The same source explained that "[w]hile it is compulsory that tenants be verified by the police before they move in the premises, this is not always the case" (Research scholar 2 May 2018). Press Trust of India (PTI), a New Delhi-based Indian news agency, cites a police officer as stating that "Delhi's south-west district police have registered 46 [First Information Reports (FIRs)] against landlords, who failed to comply with tenant verification rules" in January 2018 (PTI 23 Jan. 2018). The same source cites the police officer as further stating that tenant verification is "'a must, especially in the capital'"(PTI 23 Jan. 2018).

4. Hyderabad

The city of Hyderabad is located in Telangana state (Encyclopaedia Britannica 27 Apr. 2018; Telangana n.d.). The Encyclopaedia Britannica explains that Hyderabad serves as the capital of both Telangana and Andra Pradesh states and that it is "Telangana's largest and most-populous city" (Encyclopaedia Britannica 27 Apr. 2018). According to provisional reports from India's census, the population of Hyderabad was 6,731,790 as of 2011 (India [2011]d). Other sources state that Hyderabad has a population of 8.4 million people (The New Indian Express 23 July 2017) or 9.7 million people (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017). Information on the ethnic composition of Hyderabad could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

According to provisional reports of India's 2011 Census, 64.93 percent of Hyderabad's population follows Hinduism, while 30.13 percent follows Islam, 2.75 percent follows Christianism, 0.29 percent follows Jainism, 0.25 percent follows Sikhism, 0.25 percent follows Buddhism, 0.04 percent follows another unspecified religion, and 1.56 percent follows no particular religion (India [2011]d). According to India Today, "[s]ome 40 percent of the population [in Hyderabad] is Muslim, and the city has traditionally been the heartland of Muslim culture in the south [of India]" (India Today 2011, 336). According to the same source, "[t]he large number of Muslim residents in the 'Old City' of Hyderabad gives rise to communal tensions, and violence between Hindus and Muslims breaks out from time to time" (India Today 2011, 338). Further and corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

The same source states that "Telugu and Urdu are the principal languages spoken, although English is widely used in the city's administration and among the educated class" (India Today 2011, 338). According to the same source, Hyderabad is "an industrial center with notable [information technology], media and pharmaceutical companies" (India Today 2011, 338). Other sources indicate that Hyderabad is an information technology hub and a tourism centre (World Economic Forum 5 Oct. 2016; Encyclopaedia Britannica 27 Apr. 2018). Information on employment rates in Hyderabad could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

For information regarding tenant registration requirements in Hyderabad, see Response to Information Request IND106120 of June 2018.

5. Kolkata

The city of Kolkata is the capital of West Bengal (India [2011]e; Encyclopaedia Britannica n.d.). Sources indicate that Kolkata was formerly known as Calcutta (Yatra n.d.c; NPR 2 Sept. 2016; Encyclopaedia Britannica n.d.). According to India's 2011 Census, the population of the Kolkata metropolitan area is 14,035,959 people (India [2011]e). Other sources report that Kolkata has a population of 14.7 million people (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017) or 15 million people (World Economic Forum 5 Oct. 2016). Information on the ethnic composition of Kolkata could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. Sources indicate that the languages spoken in Kolkata include Bengali, English and Hindi (Yatra n.d.d; Ghosh Jan. 2005, 52).

According to sources, Kolkata is a "commerce hub" (World Economic Forum 5 Oct. 2016; Encyclopaedia Britannica n.d) and a city of transport and manufacturing (Encyclopaedia Britannica n.d.). Information on employment rates in Kolkata could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Information on tenant registration requirements in Kolkata could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

6. Ludhiana

The city of Ludhiana is located in the state of Punjab (Encyclopaedia Britannica 5 Mar. 2018; India n.d.b) and "is the largest city in [Punjab] in terms of area and population" (India n.d.b). According to provisional reports from India's census, the population of Ludhiana was 1,618,879 as of 2011 (India [2011]f). Information on the ethnic composition of Ludhiana could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. According to India's Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Ludhiana is an "important pilgrimage center for Sikhs" (India n.d.b). According to provisional reports from India's 2011 Census, 65.96 percent of Ludhiana's population follows Hinduism, while 28.75 percent follows Sikhism, 2.81 percent follows Islam, 1.05 percent follows Jainism, 0.68 percent follows Christianism, 0.62 percent follows no particular religion, 0.11 percent follows Buddhism and 0.03 percent follows another unspecified religion (India [2011]f).

Media sources report instances of targeted killings in Ludhiana (Hindustan Times 9 Oct. 2017; PTI 16 Oct. 2017; The Tribune 14 Feb. 2018), including "a series of high-profile murderous attacks on activists belonging to religious or right wing organisations" (PTI 17 Oct. 2017). For further information on targeted killings in Ludhiana, please see Response to Information Request IND106097 of May 2018.

Sources indicate that Ludhiana is an industrial centre (Encyclopaedia Britannica 5 Mar. 2018; India n.d.b). Other sources indicate that Ludhiana is the industrial hub of Punjab state (PTI 25 Aug. 2014; The Indian Express 13 July 2017). Information on employment rates in Ludhiana could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Information on tenant registration requirements in Ludhiana could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

7. Mumbai

The city of Mumbai is located in the state of Maharashtra (India [2011]g; Yatra n.d.e). Sources indicate that Mumbai was formerly known as Bombay (Yatra n.d.e; PTI 11 Feb. 2016). According to provisional reports from India's census the population of Mumbai was 12,442,373 as of 2011, while its "urban/metropolitan" population was 18,394,912 (India [2011]g). Other sources report that Mumbai has a population of 20.8 million people (World Atlas 25 Apr. 2017) or 21.4 million people (World Economic Forum 5 Oct. 2016). Information on the ethnic composition of Mumbai could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. According to provisional reports of India's 2011 Census, 65.99 percent of Mumbai's population follows Hinduism, while 20.65 percent follows Islam, 3.27 percent follows Christianism, 4.10 percent follows Jainism, 0.49 percent follows Sikhism, 0.49 percent follows Buddhism, 0.40 percent follows another unspecified religion, and 0.26 percent follows no particular religion (India [2011]g). Sources indicate that the languages spoken in Mumbai include English, Hindi (Yatra n.d.f; Forbes Travel Guide 11 Aug. 2017), Marathi, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Konkani, Dangii and Varhadii (Yatra n.d.f). According to The New York Times, "most of the people in [Mumbai] can read English but not Marathi" (The New York Times 16 Feb. 2011). According to sources, Mumbai is India's financial centre (NDTV 6 May 2018; World Economic Forum 5 Oct. 2016; Yatra n.d.e). Information on employment rates in Mumbai could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

For information regarding tenant verification in Mumbai, see Response to Information Request IND106120 of June 2018.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

Asianet News Online. 10 May 2017. "Renting a Home in Bengaluru? Landlords Will Now Demand Aadhaar Card." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

Bangalore Mirror. 11 May 2017. "Bengaluru Landlords Have a New Demand: Aadhaar." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 31 October 2014. "Bengaluru: India's Bangalore City Changes Name." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Cable News Network (CNN). 10 November 2017. Huizhong Wu. "Delhi Pollution Crisis Prompts City-Wide Emergency Measures." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

The Diplomat. 29 September 2016. Akhilesh Pillalamarri. "India's Capital City: Should We Call It Delhi or New Delhi?" [Accessed 7 May 2018]

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 27 April 2018. "Hyderabad." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 5 March 2018. "Ludhiana." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Encyclopaedia Britannica. N.d. Swapna Banerjee-Guha and N.K. Sinha. "Kolkata." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Forbes Travel Guide. 11 August 2017. "Your Essential Mumbai Guide." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Ghosh, Aditi. January 2005. "Language in Urban Society: Kolkata and Bengali." South Asian Language Review. Vol. XV. No. 1 [Accessed 9 May 2018]

The Hindu. 19 December 2011 [updated 26 July 2016]. "The Magic of Melting Pot Called Chennai." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

The Hindu. 19 July 2016. Gaurav Vivek Bhatnagar. "Delhi Is Now World's Second Most Populous City." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

Hindustan Times. 9 October 2017. "Ludhiana Pastor Murder: Three Months On, Cops Fail to Crack Case, 'Withdraw' Kin's Security." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

India. [2011]a. Census 2011. "Bangalore (Bengaluru) City Census 2011 Data." [Accessed 7 May 2018]

India. [2011]b. Census 2011. "Chennai City Census 2011 Data." [Accessed 7 May 2018]

India. [2011]c. Census 2011. "Delhi City Census 2011 Data." [Accessed 7 May 2018]

India. [2011]d. Census 2011. "Hyderabad (Greater Hyderabad) City Census 2011 Data." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

India. [2011]e. Census 2011. "Kolkata Metropolitan." [Accessed 7 May 2018]

India. [2011]f. Census 2011. "Ludhiana City Census 2011 Data." [Accessed 11 May 2018]

India. [2011]g. Census 2011. "Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Census 2011 Data." [Accessed 7 May 2018]

India. N.d.a. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs. "City: Chennai (M.Corp)." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

India. N.d.b. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.. "City: Ludhiana." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

The Indian Express. 13 July 2017. Raakhi Jagga. "GST Confusion Hits Industrial Production in Ludhiana." [Accessed 11 May 2018]

India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in The Republic. Vol. 1. 2011. Edited by Arnold Kaminsky and Roger D. Long. ABC-Clio: Santa Barbara.

National Public Radio (NPR). 2 September 2016. Sandip Roy. "Why Is Calcutta Now Kolkata? What Other Names in India Are Changing?" [Accessed 8 May 2018]

New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV). 6 May 2018. Imtiyaz Abdullah Samnani. "Mumbai Officials Say They Have Plan to Lose World's 4th Most Polluted Tag." [Accessed 7 May 2018]

The New Indian Express. 23 July 2017. Mithun MK. "By 2030, City's Population Will Be Too Much for ts Transport System." [Accessed 11 May 2018]

The New York Times. 16 February 2011. Manu Joseph. "India Faces a Linguistic Truth: English Spoken Here." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Press Trust of India (PTI). 23 January 2018. "Delhi Police Files 46 FIRs Against Landlords, for Violation of Tenant Verification Rules." [Accessed 11 May 2018]

Press Trust of India (PTI). 17 October 2017. "Killing of RSS Leader Is Eighth Murderous Attack Since 2016." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

Press Trust of India (PTI). 16 July 2017. "Pastor Shot Dead in Ludhiana." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

Press Trust of India (PTI). 11 February 2016. "Why UK Daily Decided to Use 'Bombay' and not 'Mumbai'." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Press Trust of India (PTI). 25 August 2014. "Ludhiana Offers Maximum Employment: Economic Survey." [Accessed 11 May 2018]

Public Radio International (PRI). 6 May 2016. Mary Kay Magistad. "India's 'Silicon Valley,' Bangalore Is Fast Becoming a Serious Global Player." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru University. 2 May 2018. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.

Telangana. N.d. The Official Website of Hyderabad District. "General Info." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

The Times of India. 1 November 2014. "It Is Official: Bangalore Becomes Bengaluru." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

The Tribune. 14 February 2018. "'Arm Supplier' Held in RSS Leader Ravinder Gosain Killing Case." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

World Atlas. 25 April 2017. Serguei Shcheglov. "The Biggest Cities in India." [Accessed 7 May 2018]

World Economic Forum. 5 October 2016. Simon Torkington. "India Will Have 7 Megacities by 2030, Says UN." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Yatra. N.d.a. "Language Chennai." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

Yatra. N.d.b. "People of Chennai." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

Yatra. N.d.c. "A Travel Guide to Kolkata." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

Yatra. N.d.d. "Language Kolkata." [Accessed 9 May 2018]

Yatra. N.d.e. "A Travel Guide to Mumbai." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Yatra. N.d.f. "Language Mumbai." [Accessed 8 May 2018]

Additional Sources Consulted

Internet sites, including: Al Jazeera; Business World; DailyO; Deccan Chronicle; Deutsche Welle; ecoi.net; The Guardian; The Hindu Business Line; Scroll.in; The South China Morning Post; UN – Refworld.