Responses to Information Requests

​​Responses to Information Requests (RIR) are research reports on country conditions. They are requested by IRB decision makers.

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25 October 2017

SOM105998.E

Somalia: Information on the Dabare Waqbare sub-clan, including distinguishing features, locations, occupations and position in the clan hierarchy; treatment, including the ability of members to live in Mogadishu (2014-October 2017).

Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa

Information on the Dabare [Dabarre, Debarre] Waqbare sub-clan was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

1. The Dabare Waqbare Sub-clan

The High Court of Australia indicates, in a decision regarding the case of a Somali asylum applicant, that the Waqbare is a sub-clan of the Dabarre sub-clan (Australia 26 Oct. 2000, para. 39). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. The decision of the High Court of Australia further indicates that the Dabare is a sub-clan of the Rahanwein [Rahanweyn] clan, which is "subdivided into two major sub-clans known as the Digil and the Mirifle" (Australia 26 Oct. 2000, para. 39). A 2014 report on Somalia by the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) similarly states that "[t]he term 'Rahanweyn' is sometimes used to describe a separate clan family, as identical to both Digil/Mirifle" (EU Aug. 2014, 44). A report published by the Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD), based on a lecture on clans in Somalia by Joakim Gundel, a political analyst specializing in Somali studies, likewise states that the Digil-Mirifle are also known as the Rahanwein (ACCORD Dec. 2009, 11).

However, a report authored by Guido Ambroso, a UNHCR field/repatriation officer, based on information taken from I.M. Lewis's Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society, states that the Mirfle is also known as the Rahanwein, which translates into "'the large crowd'" (Ambroso Mar. 2002, 12). According to Ambroso, the Digil and Mirfle/Rahanwein originate "from a legendary common ancestor" (Ambroso Mar. 2002, 12).

An article by the Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN) [at the time under the auspices of the United Nations (UN)] also mentions that the Dabare sub-clan is part of the "larger Digil-Mirifle group" (UN 17 Aug. 2004). According to Ambroso, the Dabare are a "small clan" that is a part of the Digil clan, along with the Tunni, the Jiddu and the Dubdere (Ambroso Mar. 2002, 12). The IRIN article describes the Dabare as "indigenous to the Dinsoor area" [southwestern Somalia] (UN 17 Aug. 2004). Ambroso indicates that the Digil "are located in the Lower Shebelli region between Merka and Brawa" (Ambroso Mar. 2002, 12). According to the High Court of Australia decision, the Rahanwein are "based in southern Somalia" (Australia 26 Oct. 2000).

On 11 January 2000, the BBC reprinted an English translation of a report by Somali newspaper Qaran which indicates that "Dabare militiamen" engaged in clashes with the Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA) [1] on 10 January 2000 around the town of Dinsoor, leaving 13 dead (BBC 11 Jan. 2000). On 21 October 1999, the BBC reprinted another English translation of a report by the Mogadishu-based newspaper Ayaamaha which indicates that "Dabare militiamen" and RRA engaged in armed clashes with an unknown number of deaths (BBC 21 Oct. 1999). The 2004 IRIN article reports on factional fighting in the Bay region of south-central Somalia between the Dabare sub-clan and the Luway, identified as another sub-clan "of the larger Digil-Mirfle group," around the town of Dinsoor over a land dispute and representation in the district council (IRIN 17 Aug. 2004). Further information on conflicts involving the Dabare could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

A March 2014 article from The Indian Ocean Newsletter, a publication that "covers politics and business in African countries bordering on the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea," by Indigo Publications, a Paris-based press group (Africa Intelligence N.d), indicates that a former minister, described as "Digil/Dabarre," was selected as president of a proposed "virtual" State, Baidoa 6, made up of six regions: Middle Juba, Lower Juba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool and Lower Shabelle (The Indian Ocean Newsletter 21 March 2014). The same source explains that Baidoa 6 is part of "[s]everal virtual regional administrations … being created in the southwest of the country" (The Indian Ocean Newsletter 21 March 2014). A 2015 report by Somali pro-Al-Shabaab Radio Andalus, published on calamada.com, and republished by the BBC, mentions an "ugas [chief] Gedow Abdi of the Dabare clan in the Jubba region" (BBC 19 Jan. 2015).

Information on the occupations and distinguishing features of the Dabare could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

For information on the Digil-Mirifle and the Rahanwein, and the Somali clan families in general, see Responses to Information Requests SOM105305 of October 2015 and SOM105011 of December 2014.

2. Treatment

Information on the treatment of the Waqbare and the Dabare and their ability to live in Mogadishu could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

Note

[1] The Political Handbook of the World (PHW) indicates that "[a]ssisted by troop from Ethiopia, the RRA [Rahanweyn Resistance Army] in 1999 seized control of much of south-central Somalia (home to the Digil and Mirifle clans) and expelled Ethiopian rebel groups from the region. The RRA was a core component of the Somali Peace Alliance (SPA), established in August 1999 to promote the 'rebuilding' of a central government through the initial establishment of a number of autonomous regional governments" (PHW 2015, 1329).

References

Africa Intelligence. N.d. "About Us." [Accessed 25 Oct. 2017]

Ambroso, Guido. March 2002. Clanship, Conflict and Refugees: An Introduction to Somalis in the Horn of Africa. [Accessed 18 Oct. 2017]

Australia. 26 October 2000. High Court of Australia. Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs v. Hussein Mohamed Haji Ibrahim. S157/199. [Accessed 23 Oct. 2017]

Austrian Red Cross and the Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD). 15 December 2009. Clans in Somalia: Report on a Lecture by Joakim Gundel, COI Workshop Vienna, 15 May 2009 (Revised Edition). Edited by Daisuke Yoshimura. [Accessed 18 Oct. 2017]

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 19 January 2015. "Anti-Charlie Hebdo Somali Protesters Call for 'Revenge'." Originally by Radio Andalus , as published on calamada.com on 19 January 2015. (Factiva) [Accessed 13 Oct. 2017]

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 11 January 2000. "Over 20 Reportedly Killed in Fighting in Two South-Central Towns." Originally published by Qaran, 10 January 2000. (Factiva) [Accessed 13 Oct. 2017]

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 21 October 1999. "Clashes Reported in Southwest Somalia." Originally published by Ayaamaha, 19 October 1999 (Factiva) [Accessed 13 Oct. 2017]

European Union (EU). August 2014. European Asylum Support Office (EASO). EASO Country of Origin Information Report : South and Central Somalia Country Overview. [Accessed 18 Oct. 2017]

The Indian Ocean Newsletter. 21 March 2014. "A Patchwork of Virtual States." (Factiva) [Accessed 13 Oct. 2017]

Political Handbook of the World 2015 (PHW). 2015. "Somalia." Edited by Thomas Lansford. Washington, DC: CQ Press. [Accessed 23 Oct. 2017]

United Nations (UN). 17 August 2004. Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). "Somalia: More Than 20 Killed in Fighting in Bay Region." [Accessed 18 Oct. 2017]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: Associate Professor, Royal Military College of Canada; Defence Scientist; Executive Director, Katuni Consult; Senior Programme Evaluation Officer, UNHCR; UNESCO.

Internet sites, including: Danish Immigration Service; ecoi.net; Minority Rights Group International; United Nations – Refworld.