Republic of Korea: Domestic violence, including legislation, recourse, state protection, and support services available to victims (2013-April 2015)
According to a 2014 article published in the academic journal Violence Against Women, which was co-authored by Dr. Min Sook Heo, a research professor with the Korean Women's Institute at Ewha Womans University, South Korea and Dr. Cathy A. Rakowski, an associate professor of women's, gender and sexuality studies and rural sociology at The Ohio State University (Heo and Rakowski 2014, 606), in 2013, the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF) of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) funded a domestic violence survey of 5,000 respondents (ibid., 596). According to the survey abstract, 45.5 percent of married men and women had experienced spousal abuse in the 12 months prior to the survey (Republic of Korea n.d.a, 5). According to the website of the MOGEF, whose objectives include the "[p]revention of violence against women, children and youth and protection of its victims" (ibid. n.d.b), "during the last year [2013-2014], 45.5% of married couples have experienced domestic violence and the rate has decreased by 8.3 percent compared to the past 3 years" (ibid., n.d.c).
The abstract for the 2013 survey further states that among female respondents, 4.9 percent experienced physical abuse and 28.6 percent experienced emotional abuse (including verbal abuse, threats of physical harm and destruction of property); among male respondents, 2.8 percent had experienced physical abuse and 26.7 percent had experienced emotional abuse (ibid. n.d.a., 6).
Sources report that a 2010 national survey on domestic violence indicates that within the year of the survey, 53.8 percent of couples had experienced some form of marital violence [defined as physical abuse, emotional abuse, economic abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and controlling behaviour (The Korea Herald 7 May 2012)], with 16.7 percent of respondents reporting that they experienced physical violence (KWAU et al. June 2011, para. 28.1; Chung and Ok 2014, 80; The Korea Herald 7 May 2012).
The MOGEF website indicates that in 2014 there were 17,577 reported cases of domestic violence, an increase from the 16,785 reported cases in 2013 (Republic of Korea n.d.c).
In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a research professor at the Korean Women's Institute in Seoul, whose research focuses on intimate partner violence, noted that there are no official statistics available regarding domestic violence-related homicides (Research Professor 2 Apr. 2015). She said that the Korea Women's Hotline monitors news reports and found that in 2014 there were 114 women killed by their husband or partner and 95 cases of attempted murder against wives or partners reported in the news (ibid.). She noted that the actual number of murders and attempted murders is likely higher since not all domestic violence crimes are reported in the news (ibid.).
Sources indicate that Korean society views domestic violence as "a private family issue" (Chung and Ok 2014, 82-83) or a "'personal issue'" (The Korea Herald 7 May 2012).
Sources indicate that there is a stigma against divorced women in Korean society (Chung and Ok 2014, 87, 90; Kim and Lee 2011, 2995). The 2010 national survey, as referenced in a chapter on marital violence in South Korea in Family Violence from a Global Perspective: A Strengths-based Approach, indicates that of respondents who experienced abuse from their husbands, 3.5 percent of women divorced and 4.2 percent filed for separation (Chung and Ok 2014, 86). The same source quotes a social worker who divorced her husband as the result of abuse as stating that "[i]t is very tough for divorced women to survive, which is why so many of them go back to their abusive husbands" (ibid., 87).
Sources indicate that the Republic of Korea has two laws concerning domestic violence: the Act on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection, etc. of Victims (Prevention of Domestic Violence Act); and the Act on Special Cases Concerning the Punishment, etc. of Crimes of Domestic Violence (Punishment of Domestic Violence Act) (9 Bedford Row International 12 June 2013; Heo and Rakowski 2014, 587). According to Heo and Rakowski, the former Act provides for a range of services funded by the MOGEF, while the latter focuses on perpetrators and is administered by the Ministry of Justice (ibid.). Sources indicate that the Acts passed in 1997 (ibid.; Yang 2011, 75). Article 1 of the Punishment of Domestic Violence Act states that
[t]he purpose of this Act is to restore the peace and stability of a family destroyed due to crimes of domestic violence, maintain a healthy family environment and protect the human rights of victims and their family members, by providing for special provisions on procedures for the criminal punishment of crimes of domestic violence and taking a protective disposition to change an environment for persons who committed crimes of domestic violence and to correct their personality and behaviors. (Republic of Korea 1997a)
Article 1 of the Prevention of Domestic Violence Act states that "[t]he purpose of this Act is to prevent domestic violence and to protect and support victims thereof" (ibid. b).
A 2011 academic article by a law professor at Seoul National University states that
the purpose of the law in Article 1 of the Punishment Law of DV is stated as "building a healthy family" and "protecting human rights of victims and family members," paralleling different goals. Thus, it is unclear which purpose precedes the other. Since domestic violence, including emotional, linguistic, and economic ones, could be used as a means to maintain the very normality of the family, it is ambiguous. (Yang 2011, 75)
Heo and Rakowski similarly state that the language in the Punishment of Domestic Violence Act has been "problematic" (2014, 588).
According to The US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013, perpetrators of domestic violence offences face a maximum sentence of five years imprisonment and fines up to 7 million won (US $6,590) (US 27 Feb. 2014, 17).
3. State Protection
3.1 Arrest and Prosecution of Domestic Violence Offenders
According to the MOGEF, in 2013, there were 18,000 arrests related to domestic violence, with 1,520 cases resulting in "home protection" cases and 262 cases resulting in imprisonment (Republic of Korea n.d.c.). In 2014, there were 18,666 arrests, of which 2,819 resulting in "home protection" cases and 250 in imprisonment (ibid.). The Korea Herald reported that in 2011, according to police figures, there were 189 arrests of women for abuse of their husbands and 4,481 arrests of men for the abuse of their wives (The Korea Herald 7 May 2012). The Research Professor stated that in 2012 the arrest rate for domestic violence perpetrators was 0.8 percent (30 Mar. 2015).
According to the 1997 Punishment of Domestic Violence Act, a "home protection case" means a case subject to a "protective disposition" under the Act due to a crime of domestic violence (Republic of Korea 1997a, Article 2(6)). Article 40(1) provides that a protective disposition can include the following:
- Restrictions on the offender's access to victims or family members;
- Restrictions on a domestic violence offender's access to victims or family members through telecommunications under subparagraph 1 of Article 2 of the Framework Act on Telecommunications;
- Restrictions on the exercise of parental authority over victims by domestic violence offenders who are parental guardians;
- Order to offer a social service or to attend a lecture under the Act on Probation, etc.;
- Probation under the Act on Probation, etc.;
- Entrustment of the custody of offenders to protective facilities under the act on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection, etc. of Victims thereof;
- Entrustment of the treatment of offenders to medical institutions;
- Entrustment of the counselling of offenders to counseling centers, etc. (Republic of Korea 1997a)
Article 40(2) and (6) provide that
(2) A disposition falling under each subparagraph of paragraph (1) may be taken concurrently.
(6) Institutions entrusted with the custody of an offender under paragraph (1) 6 shall provide education to domestic violence offenders to correct their personality and behavior. (Republic of Korea 1997a)
A 2013 report submitted by the Republic of Korea to the UN Human Rights Committee states that
[t]he ratio of prosecution and punishment concerning domestic violence remains low because the protective disposition or prosecution suspension is utilized in consideration of the nature of domestic violence. Protective disposition includes a restraining order for a victim, restrictions on exercise of parental authority, community service order, lecture attendance order, and commissioned treatment, all without punishing an offender. ... Furthermore, it is generally more effective ... than resorting to criminal prosecution for the purpose of offender treatment and family relations improvement. (Republic of Korea 4 Nov. 2013, para. 86)
The same report also notes that protective disposition is chosen over prosecution "when punishment of the offender is deemed inappropriate if the crime is minor; the victim does not want penalization of the offender; and the offender is deeply repentant" (ibid., para. 87).
Country Reports 2013 states that the law requires police to "respond immediately to reports of domestic violence, and they were for the most part responsive" (US 27 Feb. 2014, 17). In contrast, a representative of the Korea Sexual Violence Relief Center told the Korea Herald that when women call the police because of spousal violence "'the police may come but they listen to the husband's opinion that it is just a personal issue so [the police] just go back'" (The Korea Herald 7 May 2012). Citing the 2010 national survey on domestic violence, sources indicate that of those who contacted the police, approximately 51 percent were told by the police that domestic disputes should be resolved informally and nearly 18 percent stated that the police did not show up (ibid.; KWAU et al. June 2011, para 28.3).
In a 2011 shadow report submitted to the UN regarding the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Korean Women's Association United (KWAU), "an umbrella organization comprised of 6 regional sections and 27 member organizations"  indicates that only 8.3 percent of domestic violence victims who responded to the 2010 national survey contacted the police (ibid., para. 28.2). The same source reports that, of those who contacted the police, 61.3 percent indicated that the domestic violence continued or became worse after reporting their cases to the police (ibid., para. 28.3). Of those who did not report domestic violence to the police, their reasons included the following:
- "'violence by their spouse was not serious enough'" (29.1 percent);
- "'felt embarrassed to disclose domestic affairs'" (26.1 percent);
- "'unable to report one's spouse to the police'" (14.1 percent); and
- "did not report 'for their children's sake'" (10.9 percent). (ibid)
According to the 2013 national survey, 2.1 percent of women and 0.3 percent of men contacted the police for help (Republic of Korea n.d.a, 8). Referring to the same survey results, Heo and Rakowski state that "trust in the police is low" (Heo and Rakowski 2014, 597). According to the 2011 KWAU shadow report, most domestic violence cases reported to the police result in "'the suspension of prosecution on the condition of counselling'" or are transferred as "'family protection case[s]'," in which the offenders generally receive "very lenient sentences" (KWAU et al. June 2011, para 28.4).
The same source notes that the rate of "temporary special measures" [emergency measures under Article 5 and ad hoc measures under Article 8 of the 1997 Punishment of Domestic Violence Act] executed to protect victims of domestic violence is low and when offenders violate the special measures, no punishment is imposed, resulting in a "lack of security" for domestic violence victims who report their cases to the police (ibid.).
The Research Professor stated that "under the family reunification-oriented legal responses, perpetrators and other people do not consider domestic violence as a social crime" (30 Mar. 2015). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
3.2 Protection Orders
Article 55-2 of the 1997 Punishment of Domestic Violence Act states the following on protection orders:
(1) If deemed necessary for the protection of a victim, a judge may issue any of the following victim protection orders against a domestic violence offender by ruling, at the request of a victim or the legal representative thereof:
- Evacuation, etc. from a room, in which victims or family members live, or a room occupied thereby, to isolate the offender from the victims;
- Denial of access within 100 meters from the residences or places of work of victims or family members;
- Denial of access to victims or family members through telecommunications under subparagraph 1 of Article 2 of the Framework Act on Telecommunications;
- Restriction on the exercise of the parental power against a domestic violence offender in parental power.
(2) A victim protection order falling under each subparagraph of paragraph (1) may be taken concurrently.
(3) A domestic violence offender or the legal representative thereof may request to revoke victim protection orders issued under paragraph (1) or change the type of such orders.
(4) A judge may revoke the relevant victim protection order or change the type of such order, when he/she deems that a request made under paragraph (3) or ex officio has justifiable grounds to the contrary.
Article 55-3 further states that
(1) A period of victim protection order under each subparagraph of Article 55-2 (1) shall not exceed six months: Provided, That the court may extend the period by two months, ex officio or by ruling on the request of a victim of the legal representative thereof.
(2) When the court extends a period of victim protection order or changes its type, the period shall not exceed two years by adding the previous period of order. (Republic of Korea 1997a)
Country Reports 2013 similarly indicates that authorities are able to order offenders to "stay away from victims for up to six months" and that the order may be extended up to two years (US 27 Feb. 2014, 17). The same source notes that the punishment for not complying with a domestic violence-related restraining order is up to two years imprisonment and a fine of up to 20 million won ($18,800) (ibid.).
According to a crime information handbook published in 2014 by the US Embassy in Seoul, victims of domestic violence can seek a restraining order by contacting the local police or the domestic violence assistance hotline and that the orders are enforced by the courts (US 12 Aug. 2014, 13). A 2011 academic article in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, citing a 2008 academic article entitled "Legal Problems on Korean Domestic Violence" published in the Korean Journal of Political Science, states that there are legal services agencies available to assist women in obtaining restraining orders (Kim and Lee 2011, 2993). According to the Research Professor, citing data from the court of Korea, the court ordered restraining orders against 1.66 percent of the 5,699 cases reported as domestic violence in 2013 (7 Apr. 2015). In addition, 31.1 percent of the domestic violence cases were dropped and 20.7 percent received an order to attend counselling (ibid.). The Research Professor expressed the opinion that these statistics are a "reflection of the criminal justice system, which does not believe that domestic violence is a serious social crime" (ibid).
Further information on the effectiveness of protection orders and statistics on the number of people punished for violating the terms of protection orders could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
4. Marital Rape
According to Country Reports 2013, while Korean law criminalizes rape, no "specific statute defines spousal rape as illegal," though the "courts have convicted spouses in such cases" (US 27 Feb. 2014, 16). Heo and Rakowski state that the Supreme Court has rejected the concept of marital rape since the 1970s, "alleging that sex between spouses cannot be rape" but that, since 2006, there have been several successful convictions of cases of marital rape of migrant women by Korean spouses (Heo and Rakowski 2014, 597). According to the US Embassy in Seoul's crime information handbook "spousal and acquaintance rape are crimes, but police and prosecutors have only rarely prosecuted these types of cases" (US 12 Aug. 2014, 13). In their 2013 report to the UN Human Rights Committee, Korean authorities state that
[o]n 12 February 2009, the Supreme Court of Korea ruled that a crime of rape is acknowledged against a defendant who forced sex with his wife without her consent on the grounds that the marital relationship between the defendant and victim was legally maintained but already broken in practice. (Republic of Korea 4 Nov. 2013, para. 93)
5. Support Services
Sources indicate that the government operates a women's hotline, "1366" (Republic of Korea 4 Nov. 2013, para. 75; Chung and Ok 2014, 85). In a 2012 report, Statistics Korea indicates that among the 191,000 cases of women who made an emergency call to 1366, the majority were concerning domestic violence (Republic of Korea 26 June 2012). According to a publication by the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF), the 1366 hotline provides "free legal service and medical support" (ibid. n.d.d, 15). In their 2013 report to the UN, Korean authorities indicate that the 1366 hotline operates 24 hours a day, every day (ibid. 4 Nov. 2013, para. 76). Sources indicate that there is a "1577-1366 hot line" for foreigners (ibid.; US 12 Aug. 2014, 14).
Sources indicate that there is also the Korean Women's Hotline (KWHL), a civil society organization with 25 local branches that was founded in 1983 and focuses on violence against women (Heo and Rakowski 2014, 586; KWHL 9 May 2012). According to Heo and Rakowski, the KWHL also operates a domestic violence shelter and centre, a sexual assault centre and a consultation centre (Heo and Rakowski 2014, 586).
5.2 Counselling Centres
The MOGEF indicates that as of the first half of 2014, there were 187 domestic violence counselling centres, a decrease from the noted 196 centres in 2013 and 228 in 2012 (Republic of Korea n.d.c). In 2013 the centres processed 125,695 domestic violence cases and in the first half of 2014, processed 62,645 cases (ibid.).
In addition to the counselling centres, sources indicate that the government also operates 'one stop' support centres (KWAU et al. June 2011 para. 27.4; Republic of Korea 4 Nov. 2013, para. 78; US 12 Aug. 2014, 12) and "Sunflower" Centers for Women and Children (ibid.; Republic of Korea 4 Nov. 2013, para. 79). Sources indicate that these centres are located in or near hospitals, and provide medical treatment and counselling to victims (ibid., paras. 78-79; US 12 Aug. 2014, 12). According to the US Embassy in Seoul's crime information handbook, there are 18 "[O]ne-Stop Centers for Sexual and School Violence" and 7 "Sunflower Center[s] for Women & Children" (ibid.). Further and corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
According to Heo and Rakowski, in relation to the political and cultural resonance of "'preservation of the family'", the state-funded counselling centres for victims of domestic violence "tend to encourage women to 'forgive and forget' and to excuse perpetrator behavior" (Heo and Rakowski 2014, 588). The 2011 shadow report expresses concern that as a result of the rapid expansion of the 'one-stop' support centres, "there is a significant lack of both personnel and material resources, especially in rural areas" (KWAU et al. June 2011, para. 27.4).
According to Korea's 2013 report to the UN Human Rights Committee, in 2010 there were 66 "domestic violence victim protection facilities" (Republic of Korea 4 Nov. 2013, para. 76). The US Embassy in Seoul's crime information handbook indicates that the MOGE[F] manages approximately 40 domestic violence shelters with 10-30 beds each and victims are generally referred to the shelter through the police or government (US 12 Aug. 2014, 14). The same source notes that the locations of shelters are kept confidential for security reasons (ibid.). The Research Professor indicated that there are 68 shelters accommodating up to 1,006 people, which are administered and funded by the state and run by state and local governments, public corporations and non-profit agencies (Research Professor 30 Mar. 2015). She also said that some women's agencies, such as the KWHL, operate shelters without government funding (ibid.).
Regarding facilities for victims of trafficking, the US Department of State's Trafficking in Persons Report for 2014 states that the MOGEF operates "18 shelters for victims of sex trafficking, sexual assault, and domestic violence" (US 20 June 2014, 233).
Article 7-2 of the Prevention of Domestic Violence Act states that victims may stay in a "short-term protection facility" for no longer than six months, and up to two years in "long-term protection facilities" (Republic of Korea b, Article 7-2). According to the Research Professor, a three month extension may be granted at short-term shelters for a total stay of nine months (Research Professor 30 Mar. 2015). She also indicated that there are four long-term facilities where one can stay for up to two years (ibid.).
Article 8 of the Prevention of Domestic Violence Act details the following as services provided by protection facilities:
1. Boarding and lodging;
2. Counseling and treatment for psychological stability and social adaptation;
3. Medical support, including transfer. etc. to medical institutions for disease treatment and health care (including physical examinations within one month from the time a victim, etc. is admitted into a protection facility);
4. Accompanying in investigations by criminal investigation agencies and witness examinations by courts of justice;
5. Requests for necessary cooperation and support from legal aid institutions, etc.;
6. Providing education on self-reliance and self-support and employment information;
7. Matters entrusted to a protection facility under other Acts;
8. Other services necessary for the protection of a victim, etc. (Republic of Korea b, Art. 8)
Sources state that in addition to housing, shelters provide legal assistance, job training services, counselling (Research Professor 30 Mar. 2015; Kim and Lee 2011, 2993), and medical services (ibid.). According to the Research Professor, most shelters are located in cities and many services, such as temporary housing and counselling, are "not accessible" to victims of domestic violence who reside in the suburbs (30 Mar. 2015). The same source states that it is difficult to find a shelter that will accept a woman who has a son who is 10 years or older (ibid.). According to the US Embassy in Seoul's crime information handbook, young children are generally allowed in the shelters for victims of domestic violence, "but children who have reached the age of puberty, particularly males, are encouraged to move to separate children's facilities" (US 12 Aug. 2014, 14).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
 The shadow report was written by KWAU in cooperation with Korean Women Network for Gender Budgeting, Women's Human Rights Defenders, Korea Women's Political Solidarity, Korean Public Interest Lawyers' Group 'GONG-GAM', and the Women's Rights Committee of the MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society (KWAU et al. June 2011, 8).
9 Bedford Row International. 12 June 2013. Sarah-Jane Dobson. "The International Problem of Violence Against Women and the Effectiveness of Domestic Legislation in Asia." <http://9bri.com/the-international-problem-of-violence-against-women-and-the-effectiveness-of-domestic-legislation-in-asia/> [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015]
Chung, Grace H. and Sun Wha Ok. 2014. "Marital Violence in South Korea." Family Violence from a Global Perspective: A Strengths-Based Approach. Edited by Sylvia M. Asay, John DeFrain, Marcee Metzger, and Bob Moyer. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc. [Accessed 19 Mar. 2015]
Heo, Min Sook and Cathy A. Rakowski. 2014. "Challenges and Opportunities for a Human Rights Frame in South Korea: Context and Strategizing in the Anti-Domestic Violence Movement." Violence Against Women. Vol. 20. No. 5. [Accessed 19 Mar. 2015]
Kim, Jae Yop and Ji Hyeon Lee. 2011. "Factors Influencing Help-seeking Behavior Among Battered Korean Women in Intimate Relationships." Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol. 26(15). [Accessed 19 Mar. 2015]
The Korea Herald. 7 May 2012. "Is Domestic Violence Taken Seriously in Korea?" <http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20120507001291> [Accessed 18 Mar. 2015]
Korean Women's Association United (KWAU), Korean Women Network for Gender Budgeting, Women's Human Rights Defenders, Korea Women's Political Solidarity, Korean Public Interest Lawyers' Group 'GONG-GAM', and Women's Rights Committee of the MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society. June 2011. NGO Shadow Report: Republic of Korea. <http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/ngos/KWAU_RepublicKorea49.pdf> [Accessed 19 Mar. 2015]
Korea Women's Hotline (KWHL). 9 May 2012. "Who We Are/About KWHL." <http://enghotline.tistory.com/category/Who%20We%20are/About%20KWHL> [Accessed 26 Mar. 2015]
Republic of Korea. 4 November 2013. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant: Fourth Periodic Reports of States Parties Due in 2010: Republic of Korea. (CCPR/C/KOR/4) <http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1930_1386084992_g1348167.pdf> [Accessed 18 Mar. 2015]
_____. 26 June 2012. Statistics Korea. "Women's Lives Through Statistics in 2012." <http://kostat.go.kr/portal/english/news/1/8/index.board?bmode=read&aSeq=258925> [Accessed 19 Mar. 2015]
_____. 1997a (amended 2012). Act on Special Cases Concerning the Punishment, etc. of Crimes of Domestic Violence. <http://elaw.klri.re.kr/kor_service/lawView.do?lang=ENG&hseq=28039&joseq=JO0002000> [Accessed 24 Mar. 2015]
_____. b. Act on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection etc. of Victims. <http://elaw.klri.re.kr/eng_service/lawView.do?hseq=29088&lang=ENG> [Accessed 24 Mar. 2015]
_____. N.d.a. Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF). Abstract: The Domestic Violence Survey in 2013. Sent by the Research Professor, Korean Women's Institute at Ewha Womans University, South Korea to the Research Directorate, 2 April 2015.
_____. N.d.b. Ministry of Gender Equality & Family (MOGEF). "Organization and Function." <http://english.mogef.go.kr/sub01/sub01_41.jsp> [Acccessed 7 Apr. 2015]
_____. N.d.c. Ministry of Gender Equality & Family (MOGEF). "Women's Rights Protection." <http://english.mogef.go.kr/sub02/sub02_32_01.jsp> [Accessed 18 Mar. 2015]
_____. N.d.d. Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF). Women's Policy of Korea Continues to Evolve. <http://text.mogef.go.kr/english/etc_eng/e_mogef.PDF> [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015]
Research Professor, Korean Women's Institute at Ewha Womans University, South Korea. 7 April 2015. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
_____. 2 April 2015. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
_____. 30 March 2015. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
United States (US). 12 August 2014. US Embassy in Seoul, Korea. Help for American Victims of Crime in South Korea. <http://photos.state.gov/libraries/korea/187344/ACS/Victims_of_Crime.pdf> [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015]
_____. 20 June 2014. Department of State. "Republic of Korea." Trafficking in Persons Report 2014. <http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226847.pdf> [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015]
_____. 27 Feburary 2014. Department of State. "Republic of Korea." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013. <http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220416.pdf> [Accessed 17 Mar. 2015]
Yang, Hyunah. 2011. "'Multicultural Families' in South Korea: A Socio-Legal Approach." North Carolina Journal of International Law & Commercial Regulation. Vol. XXXVII. [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015]
Additional Sources Consulted
Internet sites, including: Amnesty International; Asian Development Bank; Asian Network of Women's Shelters; Center for Korean Women & Politics; ecoi.net; Factiva; Human Rights Watch; The Korea Times; Korean Women's Development Institute; Korean Women's Studies Institute; Republic of Korea – Ministry of Justice, National Police Agency; UN – Refworld; UN Women.